Fungal peritonitis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: The impact of antifungal prophylaxis on patient and technique outcomes.

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Fungal peritonitis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: The impact of antifungal prophylaxis on patient and technique outcomes.

Indian J Nephrol. 2014 Sep;24(5):297-301

Authors: Kumar KV, Mallikarjuna HM, Gokulnath, Jayanthi S

Abstract
Fungal peritonitis (FP) is a rare, but serious complication of peritoneal dialysis. We analyzed the incidence of FP, associated risk factors and outcome of patients with FP and evaluated the role of prophylactic antifungal agent in reducing its incidence. We studied all patients with FP from January 2005 to January 2012. Study period was divided into two parts, period I (January 2005 to January 2010), when prophylactic antifungal was not used and period II (January 2010 to January 2012), when prophylactic antifungal (fluconazole) was used. A total of 142 episodes of peritonitis were documented during this period of which 20 (14%) were FP. During the study period I, 18 of 102 episodes of peritonitis (17.6%) and in the study period II (with antifungal prophylaxis), only 2 of 40 episodes of peritonitis (5%) were due to fungal infection (P = 0.04). Nine out of 20 patients (45%) had prior exposure to antibiotics. Fungal isolates were Candida albicans in 65%, non-albicans Candida in 25%, Rhizopus species in 5% and Alternaria in 5% of the patients. While 12 out of 20 patients (60%) recovered completely and were re-initiated on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), 4 of them expired (20%) and 4 others (20%) were shifted to hemodialysis. Use of prophylactic antifungal agent significantly reduced the incidence of FP (P = 0.04). We conclude that - fluconazole when used as a prophylactic agent in the setting of bacterial peritonitis significantly reduces the incidence of subsequent FP in CAPD patients.

PMID: 25249719 [PubMed]