Gastric acid suppression, lifestyle factors and intestinal carriage of ESBL and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales: a nationwide population-based study

J Antimicrob Chemother. 2021 Sep 22:dkab345. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkab345. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: Gastric acid-suppressive therapy has been suggested to increase the risk for intestinal carriage of MDR Enterobacterales, but there is scarce community-based evidence substantiating this risk.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate if acid-suppressant use is associated with a risk of intestinal carriage of ESBL and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (ESBL-E) in the open population, and to assess possible modifying factors.

METHODS: Within the framework of a nationwide seroprevalence study, we identified a population-based cross-sectional cohort comprising 2746 adults (≥18 years), who provided stool specimens between February 2016 and June 2017. Specimens were tested by phenotypic assays and confirmatory genotype analysis to detect carriage of ESBL-E. Covariate data were extracted from self-administered questionnaires. ORs and 95% CIs were estimated using multivariable multilevel logistic regression, controlling for confounders informed by directed acyclic graphs.

RESULTS: Among 2746 participants, 316 (11.5%) used acid suppressants; the prevalence of ESBL-E carriage was 7.4% (95% CI, 6.1%-8.6%). Current use of acid suppressants was not associated with ESBL-E carriage (adjusted OR [aOR], 1.05; 95% CI, 0.64-1.74); lifestyle and comorbidity did not modify this association. A higher BMI (≥25 kg/m2) (aOR, 1.42 [95% CI, 1.02-1.98]), non-Western ethnic origin (aOR, 1.96 [95% CI, 1.34-2.87]), travel to Eastern-Mediterranean, Western-Pacific or South-East Asia regions (aOR, 3.16 [95% CI, 1.71-5.83]) were associated with ESBL-E carriage. Sensitivity analyses confirmed these results; spline analysis supported a BMI-associated risk.

CONCLUSIONS: In this open population study, current use of acid suppressants was not associated with ESBL-E carriage. Travel to high-endemic regions and non-Western ethnicity were confirmed as risk factors, while a higher BMI emerged as a potential new risk for ESBL-E carriage.

PMID:34550358 | DOI:10.1093/jac/dkab345