Infect Genet Evol. 2021 Jul 7:104994. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2021.104994. Online ahead of print.
Tuberculosis is a global human health threat, especially in developing countries. The present study aimed to describe the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and to measure the transmission rates of primary and acquired resistance. A total of 755 M. tuberculosis isolates from a cohort study of patients with culture-confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis in Orizaba, Veracruz, performed between 1995 and 2010 were genotyped by the 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) method. Drug susceptibility was determined. Logistic regression models were constructed to identify the variables associated with resistance and clusters. The recent transmission index (RTI), the Hunter-Gaston discrimination index (HGDI) for the MIRU-VNTR test and allelic diversity (h) were calculated. The Haarlem and LAM lineages were the most common in the population. A total of 519 isolates were grouped into 128 clusters. The overall drug resistance rate was 19%, isoniazid monoresistance (10%) was the most common, and 3.4% of the isolates were multidrug resistant. Among the 116 isolates resistant to at least one drug, the primary and acquired resistance rates were 81.9% and 18.1%, respectively. Primary resistance was associated with belonging to a cluster (aOR 4.05, 95% CI 1.5-11.2, p = 0.007). Previous treatment history (aOR 9.05, 95% CI 3.6-22.5, p < 0.001) and LAM lineage (aOR 4.25, 95% CI 1.4-12.7, p = 0.010) were associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The RTI was 51.7%, and the 24-locus MIRU-VNTR HGDI was 0.98. The alleles with the greatest diversity were 4056-QUB26 (h = 0.84), 2163b-QUB11b (h = 0.79), and 424-Mtub04 (h = 0.72). Primary resistance transmission, high LAM lineage prevalence and its association with MDR-TB represent public health problems. The implementation of molecular tools is needed to improve the existing control surveillance tuberculosis program.