Genetic diversity of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Punjab, Pakistan.
Infect Genet Evol. 2019 Feb 26;:
Authors: Bakuła Z, Javed H, Pleń M, Jamil N, Tahir Z, Jagielski T
Pakistan ranks 5th among the world's highest tuberculosis (TB) burden countries and 6th among the countries with the highest prevalence of drug-resistant TB. However, insufficient data are available on the genetic structure of M. tuberculosis strains circulating in this country. The objective of this study was to explore the genetic diversity of multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates from Punjab, Pakistan with a combination of spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR typing. Among a total of 127 MDR isolates studies, 53 spoligotypes were obtained, split into 14 clusters (n = 88, 69.3%, 2-29 isolates per cluster) and 39 (30.7%) unique patterns. At the phylogenetic level, the most prevalent sublineage was CAS1_DELHI (n = 53, 41.7%), mostly represented by ST 1942 (n = 29, 22.8%), followed by T1 (n = 14, 11%) and Beijing (n = 10, 7.8%). The remaining nine sublineages (CAS, MANU2, EAI5, T2, LAM10_CAM, H1, X1, H4 and CAS2) involved altogether 24 (18.9%) isolates. Twenty-six (20.5%) isolates could not be assigned to any specific clade. MIRU-VNTR typing identified 123 (96.8%), 97 (76.4%) and 65 (51.2%) unique types with a tolerance of 0, 1, and 2 locus differences between the patterns. Upon combined spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing analysis, 123 (96.8%), 108 (85%), and 91 (71.7%) unique types were identified if a tolerance of 0, 1, and 2 locus differences in the MIRU-VNTR patterns was assumed, respectively. Based on the clustering results, the transmission rate for MDR-TB cases under the study was calculated at 3.2%, 15%, and 28.3%. Overall, three clades, namely CAS1_DELHI, T1, and Beijing accounted for the majority of MDR-TB cases in Pakistan. Up to a third of the cases were clustered upon combined spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing, suggesting a moderate level of active transmission.
PMID: 30822549 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]