Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. 2021 Apr 23;10(1):70. doi: 10.1186/s13756-021-00936-5.
BACKGROUND: Knowledge on the epidemiology, genotypic and phenotypic features of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) ESKAPEE pathogens (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp., and Escherichia coli) and their association with hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are limited in Malaysia. Therefore, we evaluated the AMR features and resistance mechanisms of the ESKAPEE pathogens collected in a tertiary hospital located in the capital of Malaysia.
METHODS: A total of 378 AMR-ESKAPEE strains were obtained based on convenience sampling over a nine-month study period (2019-2020). All strains were subjected to disk diffusion and broth microdilution assays to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequence analyses were performed to determine the AMR genes profiles of the non-susceptible strains. Chi-square test and logistic regression analyses were used to correlate the AMR profiles and clinical data to determine the risk factors associated with HAIs.
RESULTS: High rates of multidrug resistance (MDR) were observed in A. baumannii, K. pneumoniae, E. coli, and S. aureus (69-89%). All organisms except E. coli were frequently associated with HAIs (61-94%). Non-susceptibility to the last-resort drugs vancomycin (in Enterococcus spp. and S. aureus), carbapenems (in A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, and Enterobacteriaceae), and colistin (in Enterobacteriaceae) were observed. Both A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae harbored a wide array of extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes (blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M, blaOXA). Metallo-β-lactamase genes (blaVEB, blaVIM, blaNDM) were detected in carbapenem-resistant strains, at a higher frequency compared to other local reports. We detected two novel mutations in the quinolone-resistant determining region of the gyrA in fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli (Leu-102-Ala; Gly-105-Val). Microbial resistance to ampicillin, methicillin, and cephalosporins was identified as important risk factors associated with HAIs in the hospital.
CONCLUSION: Overall, our findings may provide valuable insight into the microbial resistance pattern and the risk factors of ESKAPEE-associated HAIs in a tertiary hospital located in central Peninsular Malaysia. The data obtained in this study may contribute to informing better hospital infection control in this region.