BMC Microbiol. 2021 Apr 21;21(1):123. doi: 10.1186/s12866-021-02174-6.
BACKGROUND: Information on the genetic variability of drug resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is of paramount importance to understand transmission dynamics of disease and to improve TB control strategies. Despite of largest number of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis cases (1, 30,000; 27% of the global burden), strains responsible for the expansion or development of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections have been poorly characterized in India. Present study was aimed to investigate the genetic diversity in MDR isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in North India.
RESULTS: Spacer oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping) was performed on 293 clinical MDR isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis recovered from cases of pulmonary tuberculosis from North India. Spoligotyping identified 74 distinct spoligotype patterns. Comparison with an international spoligotype database (spoldb4 database) showed that 240 (81.91%) and 32 (10.92%) strains displayed known and shared type patterns, while 21 (7.16%) strains displayed unique spoligotype patterns. Among the phylogeographic lineages, lineage 3 (East African-Indian) was found most predominant lineage (n = 159, 66.25%), followed by lineage 2 (East Asian; n = 34, 14.16%), lineage 1 (Indo-Oceanic; n = 30, 12.50%) and lineage 4 (Euro American; n = 17, 7.08%). Overall, CAS1_DEL (60.41%; SITs 2585, 26, 2694, 309, 381, 428, 1401, 141, 25, 1327) was found most pre-dominant spoligotype pattern followed by Beijing (14.16%; SITs255, 260, 1941, 269) and EAI3_IND (5.00%; SITs 298, 338, 11). The demographic and clinical characteristics were not found significantly associated with genotypic lineages of MDR-M.tuberculosis isolates recovered from pulmonary TB patients of North India.
CONCLUSIONS: Present study reveals high genetic diversity among the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates and highlights that SIT141/CAS1_Del followed by SIT26/ Beijing lineage is the most common spoligotype responsible for the development and transmission of MDR-TB in North India. The high presence of shared type and unique spoligotype patterns of MDR strains indicates epidemiological significance of locally evolved strains in ongoing transmission of MDR-TB within this community which needs to be further monitored using robust molecular tools with high discriminatory power.