Vet Dermatol. 2021 Apr 21. doi: 10.1111/vde.12959. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is a growing concern in canine Staphylococcus pseudintermedius dermatitis. Treatment with rifampicin (RFP) is considered only in meticillin-resistant and multidrug-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MDR-MRSP).
HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To determine an optimal RFP dosing for MDR-MRSP treatment without induction of RFP resistance and identify causal mutations for antimicrobial resistance.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: Time-kill assays were performed in a control isolate and three MDR-MRSP isolates at six clinically relevant concentrations [32 to 1,024 × MIC (the minimum inhibitory concentration)]. Whole-genome resequencing and bioinformatic analysis were performed in the resistant strains developed in this assay.
RESULTS: The genomic analysis identified nine antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) in MDR-MRSP isolates, which are responsible for resistance to seven classes of antibiotics. RFP activity against all four isolates was consistent with a time-dependent and bacteriostatic response. RFP resistance was observed in six of the 28 time-kill assays, including concentrations 64 × MIC in MDR-MRSP1 isolates at 24 h, 32 × MIC in MDR-MRSP2 at 48 h, 32 × MIC in MDR-MRSP3 at 48 h and 256 × MIC in MDR-MRSP3 at 24 h. Genome-wide mutation analyses in these RFP-resistant strains discovered the causal mutations in the coding region of the rpoB gene.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: A study has shown that 6 mg/kg per os results in plasma concentrations of 600-1,000 × MIC of S. pseudintermedius. Based on our data, this dose should achieve the minimum MIC (×512) to prevent RFP resistance development; therefore, we recommend a minimum daily dose of 6 mg/kg for MDR-MRSP pyoderma treatment when limited antibiotic options are available.