Global epidemiology of cutaneous zygomycosis.

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Global epidemiology of cutaneous zygomycosis.

Clin Dermatol. 2012 Nov-Dec;30(6):628-32

Authors: Skiada A, Rigopoulos D, Larios G, Petrikkos G, Katsambas A

Abstract
The large majority of cases reported worldwide as zygomycosis are infections caused by fungi belonging to the order Mucorales. These infections are invasive, often lethal, and they primarily affect immunocompromised patients. Cutaneous zygomycosis is the third most common clinical presentation, after sinusitis and pulmonary disease. Most patients with cutaneous zygomycosis have underlying diseases, such as hematological malignancies and diabetes mellitus, or have received solid organ transplantation, but a large proportion of these patients are immunocompetent. Trauma is an important mode of acquiring the disease. The disease can be very invasive locally and penetrate from the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues into the adjacent fat, muscle, fascia, and bone. The diagnosis of cutaneous zygomycosis is often difficult because of the nonspecific findings of the infection. The clinician must have a high degree of suspicion and use all available diagnostic tools, because early diagnosis leads to an improved outcome. The treatment of zygomycosis is multimodal and consists of surgical debridement, use of antifungal drugs, and reversal of underlying risk factors, when possible. The main antifungal drug used in the treatment of zygomycosis is amphotericin B. Posaconazole is sometimes used for salvage treatment, as continuation of treatment after initial administration of amphotericin B, or in combination. The mortality of cutaneous zygomycosis is lower in comparison with other forms of the disease, but it is still significant. When the disease is localized, mortality still ranges from 4% to 10%.

PMID: 23068150 [PubMed - in process]