ACS Omega. 2021 Mar 15;6(12):8151-8162. doi: 10.1021/acsomega.0c06009. eCollection 2021 Mar 30.
Oral candidiasis is widely spread in both humans and animals, which is caused mainly by Candida albicans. In this study, we aimed to biosynthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for the first time using the Lotus lalambensis Schweinf leaf extract (L-AgNPs) and investigated their anti-candidal potency alone or in combination with the leaf extract of L. lalambensis (L-AgNPs/LL) against C. albicans. The biosynthesized L-AgNPs were characterized by imaging (transmission electron microscopy, TEM), UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results of the disk diffusion method showed the potent synergistic anti-candidal activity of L-AgNPs/LL (24 mm inhibition zone). L-AgNPs/LL completely inhibited the morphogenesis of C. albicans and suppressed the adhesion and the formation of the biofilm of C. albicans by 82.5 and 78.7%, respectively. Further, L-AgNPs/LL inhibited the production of antioxidant enzymes of C. albicans by 80%. SEM and TEM revealed deteriorations in the cell wall ultrastructure in L-AgNPs/LL-treated C. albicans. Interestingly, L-AgNPs/LL showed less than 5% cytotoxicity when examined with either the primary bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell (BMSCs) or MCF-7 cell line at MIC values of L-AgNPs/LL. In conclusion, we identified L-AgNPs/LL as a potential biosynthesized-based drug for oral candidiasis in humans and animals.