Healthcare-associated infection in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients: risk factors and impact on outcome.

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Healthcare-associated infection in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients: risk factors and impact on outcome.

Int J Infect Dis. 2012 Jun;16(6):e424-8

Authors: Mendes ET, Dulley F, Basso M, Batista MV, Coracin F, Guimarães T, Shikanai-Yasuda MA, Levin AS, Costa SF

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze the incidence of and risk factors for healthcare-associated infections (HAI) among hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients, and the impact of such infections on mortality during hospitalization.
METHODS: We conducted a 9-year (2001-2009) retrospective cohort study including patients submitted to HSCT at a reference center in São Paulo, Brazil. The incidence of HAI was calculated using days of neutropenia as the denominator. Data were analyzed using EpiInfo 3.5.1.
RESULTS: Over the 9-year period there were 429 neutropenic HSCT patients, with a total of 6816 days of neutropenia. Bloodstream infections (BSI) were the most frequent infection, presenting in 80 (18.6%) patients, with an incidence of 11.7 per 1000 days of neutropenia. Most bacteremia was due to Gram-negative bacteria: 43 (53.8%) cases were caused by Gram-negative species, while 33 (41.2%) were caused by Gram-positive species, and four (5%) by fungal species. Independent risk factors associated with HAI were prolonged neutropenia (odds ratio (OR) 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.10) and duration of fever (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.12-1.30). Risk factors associated with death in multivariate analyses were age (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.43), being submitted to an allogeneic transplant (OR 3.08, 95% CI 1.68-5.56), a microbiologically documented infection (OR 2.96, 95% CI 1.87-4.6), invasive aspergillosis disease (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.1-4.3), and acute leukemias (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.3-3.6).
CONCLUSIONS: BSI was the most frequent HAI, and there was a predominance of Gram-negative microorganisms. Independent risk factors associated with HAI were duration of neutropenia and fever, and the risk factors for a poor outcome were older age, type of transplant (allogeneic), the presence of a microbiologically documented infection, invasive aspergillosis, and acute leukemia. Further prospective studies with larger numbers of patients may confirm the role of these risk factors for a poor clinical outcome and death in this transplant population.

PMID: 22463920 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]