Healthcare-associated infections and antimicrobial resistance in Canadian acute care hospitals, 2014-2018.

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Healthcare-associated infections and antimicrobial resistance in Canadian acute care hospitals, 2014-2018.

Can Commun Dis Rep. 2020 May 07;46(5):99-112

Authors: Surveillance CNI

Abstract
Background: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) pose serious threats to the health of Canadians due to increased morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. Epidemiologic and laboratory surveillance data, collected through the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program, are used to inform infection prevention and control and antimicrobial stewardship programs and policies. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic and laboratory characteristics and trends of HAIs and AMR from 2014 to 2018 using surveillance data provided by Canadian hospitals participating in the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program.
Methods: Data were collected from 70 Canadian sentinel hospitals between January 1, 2014 and December 31, 2018 for Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections, vancomycin-resistant Enterococci bloodstream infections and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Case counts, rates, outcome data, molecular characterization and antimicrobial resistance profiles are presented. Additionally, hospital-level Escherichia coli antibiogram data were collected and are described.
Results: Increases in rates per 10,000 patient-days were observed for methicillin-resistant S. aureus bloodstream infections (59%; 0.66-1.05, p=0.023) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci bloodstream infections (143%; 0.14-0.34, p=0.023). However, CDI rates decreased by 12.5% between 2015 and 2018 (from 6.16-5.39, p=0.042). Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae infection rates remained low and stable whereas colonization increased by 375% (0.04-0.19; p=0.014).
Conclusion: Ongoing efforts to prevent HAIs and reduce AMR in Canada require consistent, standardized surveillance data from acute care hospitals. Increased collaboration with provincial, territorial and international partners in infection prevention and control, as well as antimicrobial stewardship, will be essential in reducing the burden of observed HAIs (including antimicrobial resistant organisms).

PMID: 32558807 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]