de Miguel-Diez J, et al. Eur J Intern Med 2020.
BACKGROUND: To examine the incidence, characteristics and outcomes of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and nonventilator hospital-acquired pneumonia (NV-HAP) in patients with or without COPD; compare in-hospital outcomes; and identify factors associated with in-hospital mortality (IHM) for pneumonia.
METHODS: We carried out a retrospective observational study using the hospital discharge records from 2016-17 of the Spanish National Health System. Propensity score matching was used for data analysis.
RESULTS: We found 245,905 patients (≥40 years) with pneumonia; we identified CAP in 228,139 patients (19.85% with COPD), VAP in 2,771 patients (8.55% with COPD) and NV-HAP in 14,995 patients (14.17% with COPD). The incidence for the three types of pneumonia was higher in COPD patients (CAP: incidence rate ratio (IRR) 2.23, 95% CI 2.21-2.26; VAP: IRR 1.25, 95% CI 1.08-1.42; and NV-HAP: IRR 1.55, 95% CI 1.48-1.63). The IHM for CAP was 10.35% in COPD patients and 12.91% in the controls (p<0.001). In patients with VAP and NV-HAP, IHM was not significantly different between those with and without COPD (43.88% vs. 41.77%;p=0.643 and 29.21% vs. 30.57%;p=0.331, respectively). Factors associated with IHM for all types of pneumonia analyzed in COPD patients were older age and receiving dialysis.
CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of hospitalizations for all types of pneumonia was significantly higher in COPD patients than in the non-COPD population. In contrast, IHM was significantly lower among COPD patients with CAP than among matched non-COPD patients. Higher mortality rates in COPD patients with any pneumonia type were associated with increasing age and receiving dialysis.