Farm Hosp. 2021 Feb 17;45(2):61-65. doi: 10.7399/fh.11479.
OBJECTIVE: To analyze compliance with a prescribed pre-surgical antibiotic prophylaxis protocol established by the Antimicrobial Stewardship Program team and the Orthopedics Department of Hospital Mexico, a public hospital located in Costa Rica, from February to March 2019. No assessments of compliance with the protocol had been conducted since its introduction in 2018, nor had variations in surgical site infection rates been determined.
METHOD: This is a retrospective observational study that extended from February 1st to March 31st, 2019. We identified patients hospitalized during the study period in the hospital's Orthopedics Department. We reviewed each patient's medical record to record their prescribed antibiotic prophylaxis. Following an analysis of the overall compliance with the protocol, we made an estimation of the surgical site infection rate as well as a descriptive analysis of the studied population.
RESULTS: The study included 110 clinical records. The most frequently prescribed antibiotics were clindamycin and gentamicin. Compliance with the protocol ranged between 89.1% and 100% across the different criteria, except for dosing appropriateness and prescription of antibiotics at discharge (14.3% and 65.8%, respectively). The most common non compliance factor was gentamicin´s dosing. The surgical site infection rate was 5%.
CONCLUSIONS: The preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis protocol established between the Antimicrobial Stewardship Program team and the Orthopedic Department reduced the length of exposure to postoperative antibiotics to only 24 hours and enjoyed widespread acceptance and a high compliance rate. However, compliance with some criteria must be improved, such as dosing appropriateness and prescription of antibiotics at discharge. Involvement of the pharmacist is vital for the compliance with and auditing of these types of protocols as pharmacists are uniquely positioned to ensure that high-quality antibiotic prophylaxis is provided in all surgical procedures that require it.