Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2021 Jul 19;20(1):48. doi: 10.1186/s12941-021-00451-w.
BACKGROUND: Commensal flora colonization during hospitalization by bacteria is the first step for nosocomial infections while antibiotic resistance reduces therapeutic options. In aim to control this phenomenon, we initiated this study to describe the impact of hospitalization on colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the surgical department of 03 health facilities in the Ndé division, West-Cameroon.
METHODS: This study was carried out on patients admitted for surgery in 03 health facilities of the Ndé division, West-Cameroon (District Hospital of Bangangté, Protestant Hospital of Bangwa and Cliniques Universitaires des Montagnes). After obtaining ethical clearance and authorizations, nasal swabs were performed at admission and discharge, with the aim of isolating bacteria and performing their antibiotic susceptibility tests. Informations on each participant's antibiotic therapy were recorded. Laboratory investigations were carried out according to standard protocols (CASFM, 2019).
RESULTS: The most commonly used antibiotics were β-lactams. A total of 104 nasal swabs were performed on 52 patients who agreed to participate to the study. From the analysis, 110 (57 at admission versus 53 at discharge) Staphylococcus isolates were obtained. Overall, susceptibility testing showed that antibiotic resistance rates were higher at discharge than at admission; with significant differences between the susceptibility profiles obtained at admission and discharge for β-lactams and not significant for fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. Globally, frequency of nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at discharge 16 (30.77%) was significantly higher than at admission 07 (13.46%) with Chi-2 = 4.52 and p = 0.0335.
CONCLUSION: The high rates of antibiotic resistance of bacteria isolated at discharge compared to those isolated at admission obtained in the present investigation, highlights the important role that hospitalization plays in the selection and dissemination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and colonization by these bacteria in health structures of Ndé division. As a result, further investigations to find the factors that promote this phenomenon should be carried out.