Human coronavirus OC43 infection associated pneumonia in a girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A case report

Medicine (Baltimore). 2020 Aug 14;99(33):e21520. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000021520.


RATIONALE: Information regarding the clinical features and outcomes of pneumonia due to an infection with human coronavirus (HCoV)-OC43 in children with cancer is rare. This report presents the clinical features in terms of chest CT scan images which may be used to identify cases of HCoV-OC43 infection induced pneumonia in immunocompromised children.

PATIENT CONCERNS: We report here a girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who developed respiratory symptoms during febrile neutropenia. Rapid clinical progression and nodular lesions on her chest X-ray and computed tomography scans were suggestive of a pulmonary fungal infection.

DIAGNOSIS: A series of tests eventually confirmed the exclusive presence of HCoV-OC43 by the FilmArray Respiratory Panel from a throat swab sample.

INTERVENTIONS: After the diagnosis was confirmed, the antimicrobial agents initially administered were discontinued.

OUTCOMES: Although the chest CT scan images looked severe, the clinical course of the infection induced pneumonia was benign. The respiratory status of the patient was completely resolved in 2 weeks.

LESSONS: This report highlights the importance of early identification of respiratory viruses, via the realization of their clinical characteristics, which helps reduce the duration of administration of antimicrobial agents in this setting.

PMID:32871999 | PMC:PMC7437800 | DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000021520