J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2021 Aug 31:1-13. doi: 10.1080/07391102.2021.1964600. Online ahead of print.
Overcoming multi drug resistance is one of the crucial challenges to control enteric typhoid fever caused by Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi. Overexpression of efflux pumps predominantly causes drug resistance in microorganisms. Therefore, immunotherapy targeting the various efflux pumps antigens could be a promising strategy to increase the success of vaccines. An immunoinformatic approach was employed to design a Salmonellosis multi-epitope subunit vaccine peptide consisting of linear B-cell and T-cell epitopes of multidrug resistance protein families including ATP Binding Cassette (ABC), major facilitator superfamily (MFS), resistance nodulation cell division (RND), small multidrug resistance (SMR), and multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE). The selected epitopes exhibited conservation in both S. typhi and S. paratyphi and thus could be helpful for cross-protection. Further, the final vaccine construct encompassing the peptides, adjuvants and specific linker sequences showed high immunogenicity, solubility, non-allergenic, nontoxic, and wide population coverage due to strong binding affinity to maximum HLA alleles. The three-dimensional structure was predicted, and validated using various structure validation tools. Additionally, protein-protein docking of the chimeric vaccine construct with the TLR-2 protein and molecular dynamics demonstrated stable and efficient binding. Conclusively, the immunoinformatic study showed that the novel multi epitopic vaccine construct can simulate the both T-cell and B-cell immune responses in typhoidal Salmonella serovars and could potentially be used for prophylactic or therapeutic applications.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.