Antibiotics (Basel). 2021 Feb 10;10(2):179. doi: 10.3390/antibiotics10020179.
Infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria increase hospitalizations and mortality rates; antibiotic pressure increases resistance rates. We evaluated the impact of the antibiotics stewardship program (ASP) on Escherichia coli resistance rates, evaluating all antibiotic use and patients with positive cultures hospitalized between 2011 and 2018. Data on antibiotics were collected quarterly as the defined daily dose (DDD)/100 days hospitalization. In 2014, an intervention was introduced, targeting the reduction of overall antibiotic use as well as specifically targeting quinolones and other broad-spectrum antibiotics. Using interrupted time series analysis (ITS), we compared the rates and trends of antibiotic use and resistant E. coli. We included 6001 patients, 3182 pre-ASP and 2819 post-ASP. We observed significant changes in absolute numbers as well as in trends for use of DDD/100 days of all antibiotics by 31% from 76 to 52, and by 52% from 10.4 to 4.9 for quinolones. ITS demonstrated that before the ASP intervention, there was a slope pattern for increased E. coli resistance to antibiotics. This slope was reversed following the intervention for quinolones -1.52, aminoglycosides -2.04, and amoxicillin clavulanate (amox/clav) -1.76; the effect of the intervention was observed as early as three months after the intervention and continued to decrease over time until the end of the study, at 48 months. We conclude that the ASP can positively impact the resistance rate of Gram-negative infections over time, regardless of the targeted combination of antibiotics, if the overall use is reduced.