Hosp Pediatr. 2021 Apr 29:hpeds.2020-001016. doi: 10.1542/hpeds.2020-001016. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVES: Intravenous (IV) to enteral transition of highly bioavailable antibacterial drugs is associated with improved safety and lower cost. We evaluated the impact of a bundle of stewardship-driven interventions (including in-person stewardship rounding, clinical pathways, and clinical pharmacist-driven enteral transition workflows) on IV versus enteral administration of highly bioavailable antibacterials at a freestanding children's hospital.
METHODS: We collected 2010-2018 inpatient usage data for clindamycin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, rifampin, linezolid, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. We analyzed total use (in days of therapy [DOTs] per 1000 patient-days [PDs]) and the percentage of total use administered enterally, both hospital wide and stratified by unit subgrouping, specifically comparing use 1-year prestewardship implementation with year-5 postimplementation.
RESULTS: Across the 8-year study window, clindamycin, fluoroquinolones, and metronidazole, together, accounted for 96% of IV DOTs for highly bioavailable antibacterials. Overall, clindamycin use decreased from 44.4 to 20.2 DOTs per 1000 PDs (P < .001), with the enteral percentage of total use increasing from 23% to 43% (P < .001) hospital wide. Overall, fluoroquinolone use decreased from 33.7 to 19.3 DOTs per 1000 PDs (P < .001), with the enteral percentage increasing from 40.7% to 55.9% (P < .001). Overall, metronidazole use increased, and the enteral percentage decreased (42.0% to 33.7%; P = .007). Low-IV-use antibacterials (rifampin, linezolid, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) showed no significant changes in total use or the enteral percentage of total use.
CONCLUSIONS: Stewardship interventions were associated with decreased overall use and an increased enteral percentage of total use for both clindamycin and fluoroquinolones, although not metronidazole. These data provide an easy-to-collect benchmark for pediatric hospitals to compare IV with enteral use of highly bioavailable antibacterials within the context of overall antibacterial use.