Antibiotics (Basel). 2021 Jun 30;10(7):798. doi: 10.3390/antibiotics10070798.
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular failure (CVF) may complicate intensive care unit-acquired pneumonia (ICUAP) and radically alters the empirical treatment of this condition. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of CVF on outcome in patients with ICUAP.
METHODS: A prospective, single-center, observational study was conducted in six medical and surgical ICUs at a University Hospital. CVS was defined as a score of 3 or more on the cardiovascular component of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score. At the onset of ICUAP, CVF was reported as absent, transient (if lasting ≤ 3 days) or persistent (>3 days). The primary outcome was 90-day mortality modelled through a Cox regression analysis. Secondary outcomes were 28-day mortality, hospital mortality, ICU length of stay (LOS) and hospital LOS.
RESULTS: 358 patients were enrolled: 203 (57%) without CVF, 82 (23%) with transient CVF, and 73 (20%) with persistent CVF. Patients with transient and persistent CVF were more severely ill and presented higher inflammatory response than those without CVF. Despite having similar severity and aetiology, the persistent CVF group more frequently received inadequate initial antibiotic treatment and presented more treatment failures than the transient CVF group. In the persistent CVF group, at day 3, a bacterial superinfection was more frequently detected. The 90-day mortality was significantly higher in the persistent CVF group (62%). The 28-day mortality rates for patients without CVF, with transient and with persistent CVF were 19, 35 and 41% respectively and ICU mortality was 60, 38 and 19% respectively. In the multivariate analysis chronic pulmonary conditions, lack of Pa02/FiO2 improvement at day 3, pulmonary superinfection at day 3 and persistent CVF were independently associated with 90-day mortality in ICUAP patients. Conclusions: Persistent CVF has a significant impact on the outcome of patients with ICUAP. Patients at risk from persistent CVF should be promptly recognized to optimize treatment and outcomes.