Impact of pharmacist-led antibiotic stewardship interventions on compliance with surgical antibiotic prophylaxis in obstetric and gynecologic surgeries in Nigeria.

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Impact of pharmacist-led antibiotic stewardship interventions on compliance with surgical antibiotic prophylaxis in obstetric and gynecologic surgeries in Nigeria.

PLoS One. 2019;14(3):e0213395

Authors: Abubakar U, Syed Sulaiman SA, Adesiyun AG

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Inappropriate and excessive use of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis are associated with the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic prophylaxis malpractices are common in obstetrics and gynecology settings and antibiotic stewardship is used to correct such malpractice.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of antibiotic stewardship interventions on compliance with surgical antibiotic prophylaxis practice in obstetrics and gynecology surgeries.
METHOD: A prospective pre- and post-intervention study was conducted in two tertiary hospitals between May and December 2016. The duration of the each period was 3 months. Antibiotic stewardship interventions including development of a protocol, educational meeting and audit and feedback were implemented. Data were collected using the patient records and analyzed with SPSS version 23.
RESULTS: A total of 226 and 238 surgical procedures were included in the pre- and post-intervention periods respectively. Age, length of stay and estimated blood loss were similar between the two groups. However, specialty and surgical procedures varied significantly. There was a significant increase in compliance with timing (from 14.2% to 43.3%) and duration (from 0% to 21.8%) of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis after the interventions. The interventions significantly reduced the prescription of third generation cephalosporin (-8.6%), redundant antibiotic (-19.1%), antibiotic utilization (-3.8 DDD/procedure) and cost of antibiotic prophylaxis (-$4.2/procedure). There was no significant difference in the rate of surgical site infection between the two periods. Post-intervention group (OR: 5.60; 95% CI: 3.31-9.47), elective surgery (OR: 4.62; 95% CI: 2.51-8.47) and hospital attended (OR: 9.89; 95% CI: 5.66-17.26) were significant predictors of compliance with timing while elective surgery (OR: 12.49; 95% CI: 2.85-54.71) and compliance with timing (OR: 58.55; 95% CI: 12.66-270.75) were significantly associated with compliance to duration of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis.
CONCLUSION: The interventions improve compliance with surgical antibiotic prophylaxis and reduce antibiotic utilization and cost. However, there is opportunity for further improvement, particularly in non-elective surgical procedures.

PMID: 30845240 [PubMed - in process]