Antibiotics (Basel). 2020 Oct 30;9(11):E760. doi: 10.3390/antibiotics9110760.
It is unknown whether neonatal ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens and inappropriate initial antibiotic treatment is associated with poor outcomes after adjusting for confounders. Methods: We prospectively observed all neonates with a definite diagnosis of VAP from a tertiary level neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Taiwan between October 2017 and March 2020. All clinical features, therapeutic interventions, and outcomes were compared between the MDR-VAP and non-MDR-VAP groups. Multivariate regression analyses were used to investigate independent risk factors for treatment failure. Results: Of 720 neonates who were intubated for more than 2 days, 184 had a total of 245 VAP episodes. The incidence rate of neonatal VAP was 10.1 episodes/per 1000 ventilator days. Ninety-six cases (39.2%) were caused by MDR pathogens. Neonates with MDR-VAP were more likely to receive inadequate initial antibiotic therapy (51.0% versus 4.7%; p < 0.001) and had delayed resolution of clinical symptoms (38.5% versus 25.5%; p = 0.034), although final treatment outcomes were comparable with the non-MDR-VAP group. Inappropriate initial antibiotic treatment was not significantly associated with worse outcomes. The VAP-attributable mortality rate and overall mortality rate of this cohort were 3.7% and 12.0%, respectively. Independent risk factors for treatment failure included presence of concurrent bacteremia (OR 4.83; 95% CI 2.03-11.51; p < 0.001), septic shock (OR 3.06; 95% CI 1.07-8.72; p = 0.037), neonates on high-frequency oscillatory ventilator (OR 4.10; 95% CI 1.70-9.88; p = 0.002), and underlying neurological sequelae (OR 3.35; 95% CI 1.47-7.67; p = 0.004). Conclusions: MDR-VAP accounted for 39.2% of all neonatal VAP in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), but neither inappropriate initial antibiotics nor MDR pathogens were associated with treatment failure. Neonatal VAP with concurrent bacteremia, septic shock, and underlying neurological sequelae were independently associated with final worse outcomes.