Implementation of an empirical antimicrobial protocol in a critical care setting: A single-center retrospective observational cohort study in bacteremic patients.

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Implementation of an empirical antimicrobial protocol in a critical care setting: A single-center retrospective observational cohort study in bacteremic patients.

J Infect Chemother. 2018 Sep 22;:

Authors: Kano KI, Shime N, Nishiyama K

Abstract
In the treatment of severe infections in critical care settings, the selection of initial empirical antimicrobials affects patient outcomes and antimicrobial overuse. The application of a comprehensive treatment guidance might facilitate appropriate antimicrobial selection. Therefore, we developed such an antimicrobial guidance for use in emergency and critical care center and verified its efficacy. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 195 patients (96 patients before guidance introduction [control group] and 99 after guidance introduction [intervention group]) who were ultimately diagnosed with bacteremia to assess the effects of the guidance (the intervention). The appropriateness of the empirical therapy was greater in the intervention than in the control group (96% vs. 90%, respectively; P = 0.10). Moreover, the rate of carbapenem use was significantly lower in the intervention than in the control group (6% vs. 20%, respectively; P < 0.01). The control and intervention groups had similar 28-day survival rates of 81% and 85%, respectively; P = 0.50). These findings imply that introducing an empirical antimicrobial guidance in emergency outpatient and emergency intensive care settings could improve antimicrobial stewardship without affecting patient mortality. The data of this study can be used as a reference for establishing the study design of a large-scale prospective trial, aimed at verifying guidance efficacy.

PMID: 30253915 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]