Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2021 Aug 31. doi: 10.1007/s10096-021-04341-z. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE: To assess the in vitro activity of cefiderocol (CFDC) against a collection of both ceftazidime-avibactam (CZA) susceptible and resistant KPC-producing Enterobacterales (KPC-EB) isolates. Secondly, to assess its synergistic activity in combination with different antibiotics.
METHODS: One hundred KPC-EB isolates were tested: 60 CZA susceptible and 40 CZA resistant. Among them, 17 pairs of CZA susceptible and resistant KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) isolates were collected from 17 distinct patients before and after CZA treatment, respectively. CFDC susceptibility was evaluated by both broth microdilution (lyophilized panels; Sensititre; Thermo Fisher) and disk diffusion testing. Results were interpreted using EUCAST breakpoints. Synergistic activity of CFDC in combination with CZA, meropenem-vaborbactam, imipenem, and amikacin against six characterized KPC-Kp strains, before and after acquisition of CZA resistance, was evaluated using gradient diffusion strip crossing method.
RESULTS: CFDC resistance rate was significantly higher in CZA resistant EB subset than in the susceptible one (p < 0.001): 82.5% vs 6.7%. MIC50 and MIC90 values were 0.25 and 2 mg/L, 8 and 64 mg/L in CZA-susceptible and CZA-resistant subset, respectively. KPC-Kp isolates harboring KPC-D179Y or KPC-Δ242-GT-243 variants showed CFDC MICs ranging from 4 to 64 mg/L. CFDC showed in vitro synergistic effect mostly with CZA, against both CZA susceptible and resistant isolates, resulting in a synergy rate of 66.7%.
CONCLUSIONS: CZA resistance mechanisms in KPC-EB impair the in vitro activity of CFDC, often leading to co-resistance. CFDC in combination with the new β-lactamases inhibitors might represent a strategy to enhance its activity.