J Fungi (Basel). 2021 Apr 2;7(4):271. doi: 10.3390/jof7040271.
Mucoromycoses (infections caused by members of the order Mucorales, phylum Mucoromycota [ex-Zygomycota]) are highly destructive, rapidly progressive infections, with dire prognoses especially when they occur in immunocompromised hosts. Current treatment guidelines recommend liposomal formulations of amphotericin B with adjunctive surgery as first line therapy, with the newer triazoles posaconazole or isavuconazole as alternative treatments, or as salvage therapy. Among the many organisms belonging to this order, a limited number of species in the genera Rhizopus, Mucor, Lichtheimia and Rhizomucor are responsible for most cases of human infection. Here, we present the minimum inhibitory concentration data (MICs) for amphotericin B, posaconazole, isavuconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole with a panel of over 300 isolates of the five most common agents of human infection (Lichtheimia corymbifera, Rhizopus arrhizus, R. microsporus, Rhizomucor pusillus and Mucor spp.) determined using the CLSI broth microdilution method. In agreement with previous studies, the most active antifungal drug for all Mucorales was amphotericin B, with MICs within the range that would predict susceptibility with Aspergillus fumigatus. Conversely, MICs for voriconazole against all species tested were high, and above the range associated with clinical efficacy with A. fumigatus. Interestingly, whilst isavuconazole and posaconazole MIC distributions indicated in vitro activity against some members of the Mucorales, activity was species-dependent for both agents. These data underscore the importance of accurate identification of the causative agents of mucoromycosis, coupled with antifungal susceptibility testing of individual isolates, in determining the optimal treatment of infections caused by these aggressive opportunistic human fungal pathogens.