In Vitro Effect of Pitavastatin and Its Synergistic Activity with Isavuconazole against Acanthamoeba castellanii.
Pathogens. 2020 Aug 21;9(9):
Authors: Hahn HJ, Escrig JI, Shing B, Debnath A
Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) can occur in healthy individuals wearing contact lenses and it is a painful, blinding infection of the cornea caused by a free-living ameba Acanthamoeba. Current treatment for AK relies on a combination of chlorhexidine, propamidine isethionate, and polyhexamethylene biguanide. However, the current regimen includes an aggressive disinfectant and in 10% of cases recurrent infection ensues. Therefore, development of efficient and safe drugs is a critical unmet need to avert blindness. Acanthamoeba sterol biosynthesis includes two essential enzymes HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) and sterol 14-demethylase (CYP51), and we earlier identified a CYP51 inhibitor isavuconazole that demonstrated nanomolar potency against A. castellanii trophozoites. In this study, we investigated the effect of well-tolerated HMGR inhibitors and identified pitavastatin that is active against trophozoites of three different clinical strains of A.castellanii. Pitavastatin demonstrated an EC50 of 0.5 to 1.9 µM, depending on strains. Combination of pitavastatin and isavuconazole is synergistic and led to 2- to 9-fold dose reduction for pitavastatin and 11- to 4000-fold dose reduction for isavuconazole to achieve 97% of growth inhibition. Pitavastatin, either alone or in combination with isavuconazole, may lead to repurposing for the treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis.
PMID: 32825652 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]