In Vitro Interaction and Killing-Kinetics of Amphotericin B Combined with Anidulafungin or Caspofungin against Candida auris

Pharmaceutics. 2021 Aug 25;13(9):1333. doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics13091333.

ABSTRACT

Treatment of invasive infections caused by Candida auris is challenging due to the limited therapeutic options. The combination of antifungal drugs may be an interesting and feasible approach to be investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the in vitro activity of amphotericin B in combination with anidulafungin or caspofungin against C. auris. In vitro static time-kill curve experiments were conducted for 48 h with different combinations of amphotericin B with anidulafungin or caspofungin against six blood isolates of C. auris. The antifungal activity of 0.5 mg/L of amphotericin B was limited against the six isolates of C. auris. Similarly, echinocandins alone had a negligible effect, even at the highest tested concentrations. By contrast, 1 mg/L of amphotericin B showed fungistatic activity. Synergy was rapidly achieved (8 h) with 0.5 mg/L of amphotericin B plus 2 mg/L of anidulafungin or caspofungin. These combinations lead to a sustained fungistatic effect, and the fungicidal endpoint was reached against some C. auris isolates. Additionally, ≥0.5 mg/L of either of the two echinocandins with 1 mg/L of amphotericin B resulted in fungicidal effect against all C. auris isolates. In conclusion, combinations of amphotericin B with anidulafungin or caspofungin provided greater killing with a lower dose requirement for amphotericin B compared to monotherapy, with synergistic and/or fungicidal outcomes.

PMID:34575409 | PMC:PMC8468219 | DOI:10.3390/pharmaceutics13091333