Antibiotics (Basel). 2021 Mar 10;10(3):282. doi: 10.3390/antibiotics10030282.
Background. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) is an established treatment in the management of biliary strictures. The aim of our study was to determine the incidence of PTC-related infectious complications in transplanted children, and identify their precise aetiol-ogy. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed all PTC performed from January 2017 to October 2020 in our center. Before the procedure, all patients received antibiotic prophylaxis defined as first line, while second line was used in case of previously microbiological isolation. Cholangitis was defined as fever (>38.5°) and elevated inflammatory markers after PTC, while sepsis included hemodynamic instability in addition to cholangitis. Results. One hundred and fifty-seven PTCs from 50 pediatric recipients were included. The overall incidence of cholangitis and sepsis after PTC was 44.6% (70/157) and 3.2% (5/157), respectively, with no fatal events. Blood cultures yielded positive results in 15/70 cases (21.4%). Enterococcus faecium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the most common isolated pathogens. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens were found in 11/50 patients (22%). Conclusion. PTC is associated with a relatively high rate of post-procedural cholangitis, although with low rate of sepsis and no fatal events. Blood cultures allowed to find a precise aetiology in roughly a quarter of the cases, showing prevalence of Enterococcus faecium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.