Mycoses. 2021 Sep 29. doi: 10.1111/myc.13376. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of candidemia is evolving with raising concern about the emergence of intrinsically resistant non-albicans Candida species and acquisition of antifungal resistance. In addition to microbiological surveys, epidemiological studies including clinical data are needed to assess the impact of candidemia on morbidity and mortality.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical and microbiological trends of candidemia in a Swiss university hospital.
PATIENTS/METHODS: This single-center retrospective study compared the incidence of candidemia, Candida species distribution, antifungal resistance profiles, clinical characteristics, and outcomes between two periods separated by one decade.
RESULTS: 170 candidemic episodes were included (68 from period 1, 2004-2006, and 102 from period 2, 2014-2017). Incidence of candidemia (0.85 to 0.97 episode/10000 patient-days), species distribution (55-57% C. albicans) and antifungal susceptibilities remained unchanged. During period 2, candidemia was more frequently observed in intensive care units (ICU, 38% vs 19% in period 1, p=0.01) and among older patients (median age 68 vs 59 years old, p<0.01) with more immunosuppressive conditions (24% vs 9%, p=0.01). Candidemia in period 2 was more frequently followed by septic shock (23% vs 7% in period 1, p=0.01), ICU admission (42% vs 12%, p<0.01) and was associated with higher mortality (34% vs 18%, p=0.03). Overall, factors associated with mortality in multivariate analyses included cirrhosis, solid malignancies and ICU stay at the time of candidemia.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite stable incidence, species distribution, and antifungal resistance of candidemia, an epidemiological shift of the disease towards older and more critically ill patients was observed, with higher mortality rates.