Infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients admitted to Hematology intensive care unit: a single-center study

Hematology. 2021 Dec;26(1):328-339. doi: 10.1080/16078454.2021.1905355.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the data of HSCT patients who were admitted to our Hematology ICU due to infections or infectious complications.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: HSCT patients who were admitted to our Hematology ICU between 01 January 2014 and 01 September 2017 were analyzed retrospectively.

RESULTS: 62 HSCT patients were included in this study. The median age was 55.5 years and 58% of the patients were allogeneic HSCT patients. Major underlying hematologic disorders were multiple myeloma (29%) and lymphoma (27.4%). The most common reasons for ICU admission were sepsis/septic shock (61.3%) and acute respiratory failure (54.8%). Overall ICU mortality rate was 45.2%. However, a lot of factors were related with ICU mortality of HSCT patients in univariate analysis, only APACHE II score was found to be an independent risk factor for ICU mortality. While there was infection in 58 patients at ICU admission, new infections developed in 38 patients during ICU stay. The most common new infection was pneumonia/VAP, while the most frequently isolated bacteria were Acinetobacter baumannii. Length of ICU stay, sepsis/septic shock as a reason for ICU admission and the presence of urinary catheter at ICU admission were determined factors for ICU-acquired infections. There was no difference between autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplant patients in terms of ICU morbidities and mortality. However, pneumonia/VAP developed in the ICU was higher in autologous HSCT patients, while bloodstream/catheter-related bloodstream infection was higher in allogeneic HSCT patients.

CONCLUSION: It was concluded that early or late post-HSCT infections and related complications (sepsis, organ failure, etc.) constituted a major part of the reasons for ICU admission, ICU mortality and ICU morbidities.

PMID:33818297 | DOI:10.1080/16078454.2021.1905355