Knowledge, attitude, and practice of clinicians about antimicrobial stewardship and resistance among hospitals of Pakistan: a multicenter cross-sectional study

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2021 Sep 6:1-11. doi: 10.1007/s11356-021-16178-2. Online ahead of print.


Considering that antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global challenge, there is a dire need to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of clinicians in AMR endemic countries. The current multicenter, cross-sectional study aimed at highlighting gaps in antimicrobial (AM) stewardship and AMR among practicing doctors working in public tertiary care teaching hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan. A KAP survey, based on a self-administered questionnaire containing 45 questions, was distributed among 336 clinicians in 6 randomly selected hospitals. Overall, 92% of the clinicians considered AMR as a worldwide problem but only 66% disagreed that cold and flu symptoms require antibiotics. Moreover, around 68% of the doctors felt confident about their practice in AM but still, 96% felt the need to get more knowledge about AM drugs. The need for refresher courses on rational antibiotic use was expressed by 84% of the participants. The main contributing factors considered for AMR by the doctors included excessive AM usage in the medical profession (87.1%) and multiple antibiotics per prescription (76.4%). Pharmacologically, AM spectrum was accurately chosen by 1.4% for Ampicillin, 0.003% for Erythromycin and 0% for Levofloxacin. Clinically, more than 50% of the clinicians used miscellaneous AM for empirical therapy of respiratory tract infection and cholecystitis. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25. It is concluded that the knowledge of clinicians is relatively poor for AM spectrum and drugs of choice for certain infections. However, the clinicians are aware of their shortcomings and desire for improvement.

PMID:34490566 | PMC:PMC8421064 | DOI:10.1007/s11356-021-16178-2