Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions about Antibiotic Stewardship Programs among Neonatology Trainees

Am J Perinatol. 2021 Jul 19. doi: 10.1055/s-0041-1732418. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Antibiotic stewardship should be an essential component of neonatology training as neonatal intensive care units (NICU) have unique stewardship needs. Our aim was to assess neonatology fellowship trainees' knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions about antibiotic stewardship to inform sustainable curriculum development.

STUDY DESIGN: We distributed an electronic survey to neonatology fellows in the United States over 4 months (January-April 2018) via Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education program directors.

RESULTS: Of 99 programs in the United States with an estimated 700 fellows, 159 (23%) fellows from 52 training programs (53%) responded to the survey and 139 (87%) provided analyzed responses. Majority of respondents were training in southern (59; 42%) and northeastern (43; 31%) regions and were equally spread across all 3 years of training. One hundred (72%) respondents reported an antibiotic stewardship program (ASP) in their institution. While 86% (120/139) were able to identify the components of an ASP, 59% (82/139) either did not or were unsure if they had received antibiotic stewardship training during fellowship.Furthermore, while answering case studies, 124 (89%) respondents identified the optimal antibiotic for methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) infection and 69 (50%) respondents chose appropriate empiric antibiotics for neonatal meningitis. Notably, fellowship training year was not significantly related to the proportion of incorrect knowledge responses (p = 0.40). Most survey respondents (81; 59%) identified small group sessions as the most useful teaching format, while others chose audit and feedback of individual prescribing behavior (52; 38%) and didactic lectures (52; 38%). Finally, ninety-five (69%) respondents preferred trainee-led ASP interventions targeting focal areas such as antifungal and surgical prophylaxis.

CONCLUSION: Antibiotic stewardship is a critical part of neonatology training. Neonatology fellows report variation in access to ASP during their training. Fellows prefer dedicated trainee-led interventions and stewardship curriculum taught within small group settings to promote targeted NICU ASP.

KEY POINTS: · Most neonatology programs expose trainees to internal or external antibiotic stewardship programs.. · Over half of fellow trainees are unsure about receiving targeted antibiotic stewardship training.. · Most neonatology fellows prefer a trainee-led antibiotic stewardship intervention..

PMID:34282573 | DOI:10.1055/s-0041-1732418