Long-term results of allogeneic peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for severe aplastic anemia

Transfus Apher Sci. 2021 Jan 2:103050. doi: 10.1016/j.transci.2020.103050. Online ahead of print.


OBJECTIVE: Aplastic anemia (AA) is a life-threatening disorder and may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality Currently, the first treatment option is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) for patients younger than 40 years. Bone marrow is recommended as the stem cell source due to less graft versus host disease (GVHD) risk and better outcomes than peripheral blood (PB)-derived stem cell. The aim of this study is to share the data of AA patients who have underwent PB-derived allo-HSCT in our bone marrow transplantation center.

METHODS: Twenty-seven patients who underwent PB-derived allo-HSCT from human leukocyte antigen matched sibling donors were analyzed retrospectively.

RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 95.2 months (range, 4.8-235 months). The 10-year survival was 89 %. The median neutrophil and platelet engraftment time was 11 days (range, 9-16 days) and 13 days (range, 11-29 days), respectively. Primary platelet engraftment failure was observed in 1 patient (3.7 %). Acute and chronic GVHD observed in 2 (7.4 %) and 3 (11.1 %) patients, respectively. Neutropenic fever was observed in 13 (44.8 %) of patients until the engraftment after allo-HSCT. One patient died due to CMV infections, two died due to septic shock secondary to fungal infection.

CONCLUSION: Although there is no prospective data directly comparing BM with PB as stem cell source in AA, observational studies indicates better OS with BM. PB can be used in certain situations such as higher risk for graft failure and donor preference. This study demonstrated that PB-derived stem cell seems to be a reasonable alternative to BM.

PMID:33446450 | DOI:10.1016/j.transci.2020.103050