Management of febrile neutropenia in solid organ malignancies following chemotherapy.

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Management of febrile neutropenia in solid organ malignancies following chemotherapy.

J Cancer Res Ther. 2014 Jul-Sep;10(3):540-3

Authors: Lakshmaiah KC, Abhayakumar SM, Shetty R, Loknath D, Jayashree RS, Govindbabu K

BACKGROUND: Febrile neutropenia is a medical emergency and it requires immediate hospitalization for evaluation and administration of empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics. The present study was undertaken to analyze the infectious agents, choice of empiric antibiotics, and outcome in high-risk febrile neutropenia in the solid organ malignancies.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 92 high risk febrile neutropenic episodes were analyzed in 72 patients with solid organ malignancies. We used cefoperazone-sulbactum as an initial empiric antibiotic. Piperacillin/tazobactum or carbapenems were added to the patients who did not respond to initial antibiotic.
RESULTS: Among the 92 episodes treated, most patients received first-line chemotherapy for locally advanced disease. Microbes were isolated in 25% of febrile neutropenic episodes. Gram-negative organism (61.70%) constituted the most common isolates. The most common microbes identified were E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus in blood, Klebsiella pneumonia in sputum and E. coli in urine culture. Patients who had been treated with cefoperazone-sulbactum improved clinically in 70.6% of febrile neutropenic episodes. Second- line antibiotics (piperacillin-tazobactum with amikacin) were required in 24% episodes, while another 5.4% episodes required third-line antibiotics (carbapenems). In this study, mortality was seen in 12% of febrile neutropenic episodes. Staphylococcus aureus was 100% sensitive to linezolid, teicoplanin, and vancomycin, whereas Gram-negative organisms were 100% sensitive to imepenem and meropenem.
CONCLUSION: Cephaperazone-sulbactum is a reasonable initial choice for empirical therapy in high risk febrile neutropenic patients in solid organ malignancies.

PMID: 25313735 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]