Maternal use of fluconazole and congenital malformations in the progeny: a meta-analysis of the literature.

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Maternal use of fluconazole and congenital malformations in the progeny: a meta-analysis of the literature.

Reprod Toxicol. 2020 Dec 28;:

Authors: Budani MC, Fensore S, Di Marzio M, Tiboni GM

Abstract
Fluconazole is a bis-triazole agent used in the treatment of superficial and systemic fungal infections, with vaginal candidiasis being one of the commonest indications to fluconazole treatment. There is increasing concern regarding the teratogenic potential of fluconazole. The aim of this meta-analysis is to pool the literature data in order to evaluate the possible association between fluconazole exposure during pregnancy and birth defects. A total of nine studies were included in the meta-analysis. Results were expressed as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and statistical heterogeneity between the studies was evaluated with Higgins index (I2) and Q-test (Q). A p-value < 0.05 referred to the effect was considered statistically significant. The maternal exposure to fluconazole during the first trimester of pregnancy is correlated with increased prevalence of heart defects in the offspring for both low dose (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.18 - 3.21; P = 0.01) and any dose (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.18 - 2.71; P = 0.01). No association was found between gestational exposure to fluconazole and increased risk of spontaneous abortion or stillbirth. Fluconazole should be regarded as a human teratogen and should be cautiously prescribed to pregnant women and to women of childbearing potential.

PMID: 33383164 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]