Diagnostics (Basel). 2021 Apr 28;11(5):800. doi: 10.3390/diagnostics11050800.
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most frequent hospital infections and among the most commonly observed community acquired infections. Alongside their clinical importance, they are notorious because the pathogens that cause them are prone to acquiring various resistance determinants, including extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL); plasmid-encoded AmpC β-lactamases (p-AmpC); carbapenemases belonging to class A, B, and D; qnr genes encoding reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones; as well as genes encoding enzymes that hydrolyse aminoglycosides. In Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, the dominant resistance mechanisms are ESBLs belonging to the CTX-M, TEM, and SHV families; p-AmpC; and (more recently) carbapenemases belonging to classes A, B, and D. Urinary Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates harbour metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) and ESBLs belonging to PER and GES families, while carbapenemases of class D are found in urinary Acinetobacter baumannii isolates. The identification of resistance mechanisms in routine diagnostic practice is primarily based on phenotypic tests for the detection of beta-lactamases, such as the double-disk synergy test or Hodge test, while polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of resistance genes is mostly pursued in reference laboratories for research purposes. As the emergence of drug-resistant bacterial strains poses serious challenges in the management of UTIs, this review aimed to appraise mechanisms of resistance in relevant Gram-negative urinary pathogens, to provide a detailed map of resistance determinants in Croatia and the world, and to discuss the implications of these resistance traits on diagnostic approaches. We summarized a sundry of different resistance mechanisms among urinary isolates and showed how their prevalence highly depends on the local epidemiological context, highlighting the need for tailored interventions in the field of antimicrobial stewardship.