Infect Drug Resist. 2021 Jun 25;14:2411-2418. doi: 10.2147/IDR.S305205. eCollection 2021.
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is one of the most devastating complications after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). However, the antibiotic resistance of infecting pathogens can significantly vary in different parts of the country. In the current study, we analyzed the demographic and microbiological profiles of knee and hip PJI over three years and compared the microbiological differences between them.
METHODS: A multicenter retrospective study of PJI patients in 34 referral medical centers in mainland China from January 2015 to November 2017 was performed.
RESULTS: A total of 925 PJI patients were recruited, 452 were identified as knee PJIs, and 473 were hip PJIs. The most common causative pathogens were Staphylococcus aureus (26.5%) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (14.3%). Methicillin-resistant staphylococci were involved in 25.6% (237/925) of all PJI cases. Mycobacterium and fungus only accounted for 6.5% (61) of all cases. Enteric gram-negative bacilli, anaerobes, and polymicrobial pathogens were more common in hip joint prostheses than in knee PJI (P = 0.014; P = 0.006; P = 0.002, respectively).
CONCLUSION: While the majority of causative pathogens in PJI cases are staphylococcal species, the prevalence of atypical organisms and resistant pathogens should also be given attention and warrant the need for empiric antibiotic treatment.