Int Urol Nephrol. 2021 Apr 3. doi: 10.1007/s11255-021-02845-3. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE: To assess the feasibility of sparing routine antibiotic prophylaxis in patients without preoperative urinary tract infection (UTI) undergoing a miniaturized percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mPCNL).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective, monocentric study was conducted to evaluate the outcome of a modified perioperative antibiotic management strategy according to the principles of antibiotic stewardship (ABS). From December 2015 patients undergoing mPCNL for kidney stone with preoperative unremarkable urine culture no longer received an antibiotic prophylaxis (NoPAP). The NoPAP group was compared to mPCNL patients who received standard antibiotic prophylaxis (PAP) in the two years before. Analysis focused on postoperative complications. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify potential risk factors.
RESULTS: Postoperative fever occurred in 8% of the NoPAP and 9% of the PAP patients (p = 0.764). Clavien 1-3 complications did not differ between groups with 33% in the NoPAP and 41% in the PAP (p = 0.511). No Clavien 4-5 complications were seen. A (partial) staghorn stone (HR 5.587; p = 0.019) and an infectious stone component (HR 6.313; p = 0.003) were identified as significant risk factors for postoperative fever. By sparing routine antibiotic prophylaxis the overall antibiotic usage was reduced from 100% (PAP) to 9% (NoPAP).
CONCLUSION: Patients with negative preoperative UC, a none-staghorn stone and no history of recurrent UTI or infectious stones may not need routine antibiotic prophylaxis prior to mPCNL. A prospective validation is warranted.