Molecular Characterisation of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Patients at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Hyderabad, South India

Indian J Med Microbiol. 2020 Apr-Jun;38(2):183-192. doi: 10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_20_151. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Infections with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) greatly influence clinical outcome. Molecular characterisation of MRSA can help to predict their spread and to institute treatment and hospital protocols.

AIM: The aim of this study is to understand the diversity of MRSA in a tertiary care hospital in Hyderabad, India.

SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Samples collected at Gandhi Medical College, Hyderabad, and designed to assess hospital-or community-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA or CA-MRSA).

SUBJECTS AND METHODS: MRSA were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa typing, multi-locus sequence typing and staphylococcal cassette chromosome-mec (SCCmec) typing.

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Discriminatory index and 95% confidence interval.

RESULTS: Of the 30 MRSA, (a) 18 and 12 were HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA, respectively, and (b) 23.3% and 6.6% displayed induced clindamycin and intermediate vancomycin resistance, respectively. Genetic diversity was evident from the presence of (a) 20 pulsotypes, (b) eight spa types, with the predominance of t064 (n = 9) and (c) seven sequence types (ST), with the preponderance of ST22 and ST8 (9 each). ST22 and ST8 were the most prevalent among HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA, respectively. SCCmec type IV was the most frequent (n = 8). 44.4% of HA-MRSA belonged to SCCmec IV and V, whereas 33.3% of CA-MRSA belonged to SCCmec I and III; 33.3% (5/15) of the isolates harbouring the pvl gene belonged to SCCmec IVC/H.

CONCLUSIONS: ST8 was a dominant type along with other previously reported types ST22, ST239, and ST772 from India. The observations highlight the prevalence of genetically diverse clonal populations of MRSA, suggesting potential multiple origins.

PMID:33589057 | DOI:10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_20_151