Indian J Med Microbiol. 2020 Apr-Jun;38(2):183-192. doi: 10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_20_151. Epub 2020 Dec 2.
CONTEXT: Infections with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) greatly influence clinical outcome. Molecular characterisation of MRSA can help to predict their spread and to institute treatment and hospital protocols.
AIM: The aim of this study is to understand the diversity of MRSA in a tertiary care hospital in Hyderabad, India.
SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Samples collected at Gandhi Medical College, Hyderabad, and designed to assess hospital-or community-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA or CA-MRSA).
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: MRSA were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa typing, multi-locus sequence typing and staphylococcal cassette chromosome-mec (SCCmec) typing.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Discriminatory index and 95% confidence interval.
RESULTS: Of the 30 MRSA, (a) 18 and 12 were HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA, respectively, and (b) 23.3% and 6.6% displayed induced clindamycin and intermediate vancomycin resistance, respectively. Genetic diversity was evident from the presence of (a) 20 pulsotypes, (b) eight spa types, with the predominance of t064 (n = 9) and (c) seven sequence types (ST), with the preponderance of ST22 and ST8 (9 each). ST22 and ST8 were the most prevalent among HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA, respectively. SCCmec type IV was the most frequent (n = 8). 44.4% of HA-MRSA belonged to SCCmec IV and V, whereas 33.3% of CA-MRSA belonged to SCCmec I and III; 33.3% (5/15) of the isolates harbouring the pvl gene belonged to SCCmec IVC/H.
CONCLUSIONS: ST8 was a dominant type along with other previously reported types ST22, ST239, and ST772 from India. The observations highlight the prevalence of genetically diverse clonal populations of MRSA, suggesting potential multiple origins.