Molecular characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of methicillin-resistant <em>staphylococcus aureus</em> isolates from clinical samples and asymptomatic nasal carriers in Istanbul (Turkey)

Niger J Clin Pract. 2021 Jul;24(7):997-1004. doi: 10.4103/njcp.njcp_615_19.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been a widespread problem in Turkish hospitals.

AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the staphylococcal toxin genes of the clinical and nasal MRSA isolates, and their antibiotic resistance profiles.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Isolation of nasal and clinical bacteria was done following standard microbiological methods. The presence of antimicrobial resistance genes (mec A, pvl, tsst-1, and SEs genes) was determined using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay.

RESULTS: Among nasal MRSA isolates, 66.7% were toxigenic. The distribution of genes was as follows: pvl 26.7%, tsst-1 3.3%, and SEs 36.7%. Therefore, the nasal MRSA isolates had a rate of 23.3% multidrug resistance (MDR) pattern to the non-beta-lactams antibiotics. All (100%) clinical MRSA isolates were found to be toxigenic. The distribution of genes was as follows; pvl 10%, tsst-1 6.7%, and SEs 100%. The clinical MRSA isolates had a rate of 60% MDR.

CONCLUSIONS: Following detection of pvl, tsst-1, and SEs among nasal and clinical MRSA isolates, and the presence of high antimicrobial resistance, the spread of these strains may be an additional factor contributing to the emergence of community-acquired (CA)-MRSA and hospital-acquired (HA)-MRSA. This study is the first to determine the resistance to linezolid and tigecycline in both nasal and clinical MRSA isolates, for the first time in Turkey. All nasal and clinical MRSA isolates were uniformly susceptible to vancomycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin. Our findings show that MRSA infections in Turkey can be empirically treated with vancomycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin based on the lack of demonstrable resistance to these drugs.

PMID:34290175 | DOI:10.4103/njcp.njcp_615_19