Molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains in bovine mastitis milk in Bangladesh.

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Molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains in bovine mastitis milk in Bangladesh.

Int J Vet Sci Med. 2018 Jun;6(1):53-60

Authors: Hoque MN, Das ZC, Rahman ANMA, Haider MG, Islam MA

Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus is a common causative agent of bovine mastitis in dairy herds worldwide. This study was designed to assess the prevalence of mastitis in cows through screening tests and molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains. Out of 175 randomly screened cows, mastitis was detected in 50 cows by California Mastitis Test (CMT), and from those mastitic cows, 200 quarter milk samples were collected for subsequent culture and PCR based identification. The herd, cow and quarter level prevalence of mastitis was 73.3, 28.6 and 29.5% respectively, and subclinical mastitis (SCM) was the predominant type in all cases. According to bacteriology the overall prevalence of herd, cow and quarter level Staphylococcus aureus mastitis was 72.7, 74.0 and 62.0%, respectively, and the pathogen was mostly associated with clinical mastitis (CM). Cows breed, parity, daily milk yield, regular teat dipping, and dry cow therapy were significantly associated (P < 0.05) risk factors for mastitis onset. This study identifies 145 Staphylococcus aureus isolates which varied greatly with the categories of mastitis (higher in CM), udder quarter location (highest in right rear quarters), and to a lesser extent in the study areas (P < 0.05). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that 79.3% Staphylococcus aureus strains were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, 49.0% to two or more antimicrobials, and clinical isolates showed more resistance to all tested antibiotics. The highest resistance rate was found to oxytetracyclin, and no resistance to ceftriaxone and azithromycin. Seven enterotoxin gene profile were detected in the tested isolates, and mecA was found in 20.0% isolates indicating the emergence and spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The isolates were carrying genes in combination, and were found higher in SCM cases. In this study, plasmids (>23 kb to 2.9 kb) were detected in 70.3% strains, and 54.9% plasmid bearing strains were multiple drug resistant (MDR). Thus, the high prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus mastitis is an important concern for diary industry of Bangladesh since the strains of this pathogen is becoming more resistant to commercially available antimicrobials, and this is an alarming concern for both animal and public health.

PMID: 30255079 [PubMed]