J Antimicrob Chemother. 2020 Oct 21:dkaa396. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkaa396. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: The development of resistance to ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam during treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections is concerning.
OBJECTIVES: Characterization of the mechanisms leading to the development of OXA-10-mediated resistance to ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam during treatment of XDR P. aeruginosa infections.
METHODS: Four paired ceftolozane/tazobactam- and ceftazidime/avibactam-susceptible/resistant isolates were evaluated. MICs were determined by broth microdilution. STs, resistance mechanisms and genetic context of β-lactamases were determined by genotypic methods, including WGS. The OXA-10 variants were cloned in PAO1 to assess their impact on resistance. Models for the OXA-10 derivatives were constructed to evaluate the structural impact of the amino acid changes.
RESULTS: The same XDR ST253 P. aeruginosa clone was detected in all four cases evaluated. All initial isolates showed OprD deficiency, produced an OXA-10 enzyme and were susceptible to ceftazidime, ceftolozane/tazobactam, ceftazidime/avibactam and colistin. During treatment, the isolates developed resistance to all cephalosporins. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that the evolved resistant isolates had acquired mutations in the OXA-10 enzyme: OXA-14 (Gly157Asp), OXA-794 (Trp154Cys), OXA-795 (ΔPhe153-Trp154) and OXA-824 (Asn143Lys). PAO1 transformants producing the evolved OXA-10 derivatives showed enhanced ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam resistance but decreased meropenem MICs in a PAO1 background. Imipenem/relebactam retained activity against all strains. Homology models revealed important changes in regions adjacent to the active site of the OXA-10 enzyme. The blaOXA-10 gene was plasmid borne and acquired due to transposition of Tn6746 in the pHUPM plasmid scaffold.
CONCLUSIONS: Modification of OXA-10 is a mechanism involved in the in vivo acquisition of resistance to cephalosporin/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations in P. aeruginosa.