Molecular modeling of Gram-positive bacteria peptidoglycan layer, selected glycopeptide antibiotics and vancomycin derivatives modified with sugar moieties.

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Molecular modeling of Gram-positive bacteria peptidoglycan layer, selected glycopeptide antibiotics and vancomycin derivatives modified with sugar moieties.

Carbohydr Res. 2014 May 7;389:154-64

Authors: Ślusarz R, Szulc M, Madaj J

Abstract
Proper understanding of the mechanisms of binding to Gram-positive bacteria cell wall layers-especially to the peptidoglycan (PG) layer, seems to be crucial for proper development of new drug candidates which are effective against these bacteria. In this work we have constructed two different models of the Gram-positive bacteria PG layer: the layered and the scaffold models. PG conformational changes during geometry optimization, models relaxation, and molecular dynamics were described and discussed. We have found that the border surface of both PG layer models differs from the surface located away from the edge of models and the chains formed by disaccharide units prefer helix-like conformation. This curling of PG chains significantly affects the shape of antibiotic-accessible surface and the process is thus crucial for new drug development. Glycopeptide antibiotics effective against Gram-positive bacteria, such as vancomycin and its semisynthetic derivatives-oritavancin and telavancin, bind to d-alanyl-d-alanine stem termini on the peptidoglycan precursors of the cell wall. This binding inhibits cross-linking between the peptides and subsequently prevents cell wall synthesis. In this study some of the aspects of conformational freedom of vancomycin and restrictions from the modifications of vancomycin structure introduced into oritavancin and telavancin and five other vancomycin derivatives (with addition of 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-d-galactopyranosylamine, 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranosylamine, 1-amine-1-deoxy-d-glucitol, 2-amino-2-deoxy-d-galactitol, or 2-amino-2-deoxy-d-glucitol to the C-terminal amino acid group in the vancomycin) are presented and discussed. The resulting molecular dynamics trajectories, root mean square deviation changes of aglycon and saccharide moieties as well as a comparative study of possible interactions with cyclic and chain forms of modified groups have been carried out, measured, and analyzed. Energetically advantageous conformations show close similarity to the structures known from the experimental data, but the diversity of others suggest very high conformational freedom of all modeled antibiotics and vancomycin derivatives. Alditol derivatives move closer to the peptidoglycan chain more easily but they also form intramolecular interactions more frequently than their homologous cyclic forms. One of the proposed derivatives seems to be a promising agent which is efficient in treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria.

PMID: 24685455 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]