Mucormycosis in a pediatric population: a review of 20 cases from southern Turkey

Turk J Pediatr. 2021;63(1):11-22. doi: 10.24953/turkjped.2021.01.002.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mucormycosis is a fatal invasive fungal infection seen most often in patients with compromised defense mechanisms. The aim of this article was to review the data of pediatric mucor in the South of Turkey.

METHODS: Twenty pediatric cases with biopsy proven mucormycosis were reported, between January 2007 through January 2017. Data were extracted from the medical charts of patients retrospectively.

RESULTS: Underlying conditions were hematological malignancy (75%), in whom 93% had acute leukemia, aplastic anemia (15%), diabetes mellitus (5%) and other malignancies (5%). The main sites of infection were sinus (85%); alone (29.4%) or with cerebral (17.6%), and orbital involvement (17.6%). Pulmonary involvement was reported in 11 patients (55%), two of them had the alone form and nine cases were associated with nasal sinus involvement. Disseminated mucormycosis was documented in 45%. Fever and pain/swelling of organs were the most commonly encountered signs and symptoms. Treatment compromised of am-photericin B monotherapy in five patients. All patients except one received liposomal formu-lations (LAmB). A combination of surgery and antifungal therapy was performed in 75%. Crude survival was 55%; among 15 cases treated with a combination of surgery and antifun-gal therapy, survival rate was 8/15 (53%). The overall mortality rate was high in patients diagnosed with disseminated infection (100%).

CONCLUSIONS: Mucormycosis in pediatric cases requires a high index of suspicion and urgent evaluation of clinical samples. Surgical debridement should be considered when feasible. Initial medical therapy should include an amphotericin preparation with or step-down to posaconazole.

PMID:33686822 | DOI:10.24953/turkjped.2021.01.002