Multidrug-Resistant and Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Dutch Surface Water and Wastewater.
PLoS One. 2015;10(6):e0127752
Authors: Blaak H, Lynch G, Italiaander R, Hamidjaja RA, Schets FM, de Roda Husman AM
OBJECTIVE: The goal of the current study was to gain insight into the prevalence and concentrations of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) Escherichia coli in Dutch surface water, and to explore the role of wastewater as AMR contamination source.
METHODS: The prevalence of AMR E. coli was determined in 113 surface water samples obtained from 30 different water bodies, and in 33 wastewater samples obtained at five health care institutions (HCIs), seven municipal wastewater treatment plants (mWWTPs), and an airport WWTP. Overall, 846 surface water and 313 wastewater E. coli isolates were analysed with respect to susceptibility to eight antimicrobials (representing seven different classes): ampicillin, cefotaxime, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and chloramphenicol.
RESULTS: Among surface water isolates, 26% were resistant to at least one class of antimicrobials, and 11% were multidrug-resistant (MDR). In wastewater, the proportions of AMR/MDR E. coli were 76%/62% at HCIs, 69%/19% at the airport WWTP, and 37%/27% and 31%/20% in mWWTP influents and effluents, respectively. Median concentrations of MDR E. coli were 2.2×102, 4.0×104, 1.8×107, and 4.1×107 cfu/l in surface water, WWTP effluents, WWTP influents and HCI wastewater, respectively. The different resistance types occurred with similar frequencies among E. coli from surface water and E. coli from municipal wastewater. By contrast, among E. coli from HCI wastewater, resistance to cefotaxime and resistance to ciprofloxacin were significantly overrepresented compared to E. coli from municipal wastewater and surface water. Most cefotaxime-resistant E. coliisolates produced ESBL. In two of the mWWTP, ESBL-producing variants were detected that were identical with respect to phylogenetic group, sequence type, AMR-profile, and ESBL-genotype to variants from HCI wastewater discharged onto the same sewer and sampled on the same day (A1/ST23/CTX-M-1, B23/ST131/CTX-M-15, D2/ST405/CTX-M-15).
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our data show that MDR E. coli are omnipresent in Dutch surface water, and indicate that municipal wastewater significantly contributes to this occurrence.
PMID: 26030904 [PubMed - in process]