Multidrug resistant bacteremia in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients

Tunis Med. 2021 Feb;99(2):269-276.


BACKGROUND: Bacteremia become fearsome in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients with the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains.

AIM: Our purpose was to investigate the prevalence of MDR bacteremia in HSCT recipients at the Tunisian National Bone Marrow Transplant Center, associated factors and attributable mortality rate.

METHODS: Our retrospective study (January 2010-December 2017) included all MDR bacteremia in the Hematology department. MDR rods were: extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacterales (ESBL-E), P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii resistant to at least three families of antibiotics, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant E. faecium (VRE).

RESULTS: The prevalence of MDR bacteremia among HSCT recipients was 5.9% (48/816) with a stable trend over time (rs=0.18). Neutropenia, prior hospitalization, prior antibiotherapy and prior colonization with MDR pathogens were observed in 59%, 58%, 48% and 31% of cases, respectively. Imipenem was the most prescribed first-line antibiotic (50%). The attributable mortality rate was 13%. MDR bacteria (n=48) belonged to ESBL-E (60%), P. aeruginosa (19%), A. baumannii (13%), MRSA (4%) and VRE (4%). For ESBL-E and P. aeruginosa, the rates of antibiotic resistance were respectively, 17% and 44% to imipenem, 31% and 56% to amikacin and 15% and 0% to colistin. Strains of A. baumannii were susceptible only to colistin. The MRSA (n=2) were resistant to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin and susceptible to glycopeptides. The VRE (n=2) were susceptible to linezolid and tigecycline.

CONCLUSION: Low prevalence of MDR bacteremia in HSCT recipients but high attributable mortality rate, requiring reinforcement of hygiene measures.