Microb Drug Resist. 2021 Jun 29. doi: 10.1089/mdr.2020.0365. Online ahead of print.
A total of 648 diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) were isolated from calves (n = 219), lambs (n = 87), kids (n = 103), human (n = 193), and water (n = 46) samples. The presence of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), and shigatoxigenic E. coli (STEC) was confirmed by PCR-based detection of the Shiga toxin, intimin, hemolysin, and enterotoxin genes. All the isolates were tested for antimicrobial resistance (AMR) by disc diffusion assay. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), carbapenemase, and metallo-beta-lactamase production were determined by double-disk synergy test, modified Hodge test, and combined disk test assays. AMR genes (blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M, blaCMY-2, blaNDM, blaKPC, blaVIM, and blaIMP) were detected by PCR using specific primers. Majority of the isolates from human and water exhibited resistance (>80%) against amoxicillin, ampicillin, aztreonam, cefotaxime, cefixime, gentamicin, ceftazidime, and cefalexin, and against imipenem (70.98%), doripenem (70.47%), and ertapenem (60.62%). Bovine isolates were sensitive to carbapenems. Many isolates (5.75-24.35%) from human, water, calves, kids, and lambs were multidrug resistant (MDR), with resistance against three or more classes of antimicrobials. A total of 170/648 (26.23%) isolates were classified as STEC (9.88%), EPEC (4.32%), and ETEC (12.04%). The AMR genes, including blaTEM, blaCMY2, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV were detected in the E. coli from all sources. but blaNDM and blaKPC were detected only in the isolates from human and water. Three STEC isolates from human origin possessed multiple ESBLs, carbapenemase and metallo-beta-lactamase genes reported for the first time. ESBLs producing EPEC and ETEC in lambs and kids are also reported under this study. Presence of MDR-DEC in domestic animals and common potable water poses public health concern in this region.