Mutation-driven β-lactam resistance mechanisms among contemporary ceftazidime-nonsusceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from U.S. hospitals.

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Mutation-driven β-lactam resistance mechanisms among contemporary ceftazidime-nonsusceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from U.S. hospitals.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014 Nov;58(11):6844-50

Authors: Castanheira M, Mills JC, Farrell DJ, Jones RN

Abstract
OprD loss and hyperexpression of AmpC, MexAB-OprM, MexCD-OprJ, MexEF-OprN, and MexXY-OprM were evaluated among 120 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates collected during 2012 in U.S. hospitals and selected based on ceftazidime MIC values (1 to >32 μg/ml). AmpC derepression (10-fold greater than that with the control) and OprD loss (decreased/no band) were the most prevalent resistance mechanisms: 47.5 and 45.8% of the isolates were considered positive, respectively. Elevated expression of the efflux pumps MexAB-OprM, MexCD-OprJ, MexEF-OprN, and MexXY-OprM was observed in 32.5, 8.3, 0.0, and 28.4% of the isolates, respectively. A total of 21 different combinations of resistance mechanisms were noted, and the most prevalent included AmpC derepression with OprD loss with and without efflux hyperexpression (38 and 10 isolates, respectively). A total of 26 isolates had no changes in the resistance mechanisms tested and had lower MIC values for all β-lactams or β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations analyzed. OprD loss had a strong correlation with elevated MIC results for imipenem and meropenem (median MIC values of 8 and 4 μg/ml, respectively), with all combinations displaying OprD loss also displaying elevated median MIC values for these carbapenems (4 to >8 μg/ml). AmpC expression levels were greater in isolates displaying elevated cefepime, ceftazidime, or piperacillin-tazobactam MIC values (≥4, ≥4, and ≥16 μg/ml, respectively). Isolates displaying derepressed AmpC had ceftolozane-tazobactam MIC values ranging from 1 to 16 μg/ml. No strong correlation was noticed with MIC values for this β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combination and OprD loss or hyperexpression of efflux systems. Two KPC-producing isolates were detected among 16 isolates displaying ceftolozane-tazobactam MIC values of ≥8 μg/ml.

PMID: 25182652 [PubMed - in process]