Nanomaterials (Basel). 2021 Apr 22;11(5):1075. doi: 10.3390/nano11051075.
The worldwide increased bacterial resistance toward antimicrobial therapeutics has led investigators to search for new therapeutic options. Some of the options currently exploited to treat drug-resistant infections include drug-associated nanosystems. Additionally, the use of bacteriophages alone or in combination with drugs has been recently revisited; some studies utilizing nanosystems for bacteriophage delivery have been already reported. In this review article, we focus on nine pathogens that are the leading antimicrobial drug-resistant organisms, causing difficult-to-treat infections. For each organism, the bacteriophages and nanosystems developed or used in the last 20 years as potential treatments of pathogen-related infections are discussed. Summarizing conclusions and future perspectives related with the potential of such nano-antimicrobials for the treatment of persistent infections are finally highlighted.