Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2021 Mar 23. doi: 10.1080/14787210.2021.1908125. Online ahead of print.
INTRODUCTION: : Despite extensive advances in the production and synthesis of antibiotics, infectious diseases are one of the main problems of the 21st century due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) distributing in organisms. Therefore, researchers in nanotechnology have focused on new strategies to formulate and synthesis the different types of nanoparticles (NPs) with antimicrobial properties.
AREAS COVERED: : The present review focuses on nanoparticles which are divided into two groups, organic (micelles, liposomes, polymer-based and lipid-based NPs) and inorganic (metals and metal oxides). NPs can penetrate the cell wall then destroy permeability of cell membrane, the structure and function of cell macromolecules by producing of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and eventually kill the bacteria. Moreover, their characteristics and mechanism in various bacteria especially MDR bacteria and finally their biocompatibility and the factors affecting their activity have been discussed.
EXPERT OPINION: Nanotechnology has led to higher drug absorption, targeted drug delivery and fewer side effects. NPs can overcome MDR through affecting several targets in the bacteria cell and synergistically increase the effectiveness of current antibiotics. Moreover, organic NPs with regard to their biodegradability and biocompatibility characteristics can be suitable agents for medical applications. However, they are less stable in environment in comparison to inorganic NPs.