Microorganisms. 2021 Mar 5;9(3):534. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms9030534.
Nosocomial pneumonia (NP), including hospital-acquired pneumonia in non-intubated patients and ventilator-associated pneumonia, is one of the most frequent hospital-acquired infections, especially in the intensive care unit. NP has a significant impact on morbidity, mortality and health care costs, especially when the implicated pathogens are multidrug-resistant ones. This narrative review aims to critically review what is new in the field of NP, specifically, diagnosis and antibiotic treatment. Regarding novel imaging modalities, the current role of lung ultrasound and low radiation computed tomography are discussed, while regarding etiological diagnosis, recent developments in rapid microbiological confirmation, such as syndromic rapid multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction panels are presented and compared with conventional cultures. Additionally, the volatile compounds/electronic nose, a promising diagnostic tool for the future is briefly presented. With respect to NP management, antibiotics approved for the indication of NP during the last decade are discussed, namely, ceftobiprole medocaril, telavancin, ceftolozane/tazobactam, ceftazidime/avibactam, and meropenem/vaborbactam.